We will look after the 8 steps of conducting any kind of research. Research or scientific research means same.
8 steps of conducting any kind of research
Meaning of Scientific Research:
Scientific Research is an investigation followed by experimentation, observation, and logical arguments from accepted assumptions, and a combination of these three in varying proportions.
There are several steps which need to follow to conduct the research. Hence, it means the truth is found through series of objective analysis. Thus, the result is not based on intuition, opinion, and experience but it is always remains comprehensive.
Process of Scientific Research
Following is the general process of scientific research
1. Sensing or realizing a probelm
2. Problem Identification
3. Theoretical framework
4. Formulation of hypothesis
5. Research design
6. Collection of data
7. Analysis of data
8. Generalization and interpretation
Explanation of points
a. Sensing or realizing a problem
Generally, research is conducted to solve the problem. There are several problems in our environment. Some problems affect the environment. Hence, one has to observe the situation and then sense or realize the problem.
b. Problem Identification
There are many problem in our environment. We must have sense to identify the problem which are affecting our environment. Only symptoms does not indicate the problem. So , in this step, researcher tries to find out the the exact problem. Identifying the problems makes his/her further research easier.
c. Theoretical Framework
It is third step and one of the important step of scientific research. In this step, research collects the information about the problem. The associations between the variables are identified. On the basis of data and information from literature review, a theoretical framework is developed.
d. Formulation of hypothesis
Working hypothesis are made, after developing the theoretical framework. Working hypothesis is the assumption made to draw out and test its logical consequences. Hypothesis plays vital role and should be very specific to the piece of research in hand because it has to be tested.
e. Research Design
Here, researcher selects the appropriate research designs. The research design is the working framework within which research need to be conducted. The main purpose of making research design is to collect relevant evidence with minimum expenditure of time, effort, and money.
f. Collection of data.
After identifying the problem, it is necessary to collect adequate and appropriate data. There are various methods to collect the data. Among them primary and secondary method are mostly used. Depending upon the problem , either primary or secondary data are collected.
g. Analysis of Data
After collection of data, data are analyze using different methods. Hypothesis need to be tested after analyzing the data. z-test, t-test, ANOVA, etc. are the methods to test the hypothesis. Hypothesis testing will result in either accepting the hypothesis or rejecting it.
h. Generalization and interpretation
It is the final step of the research process. The real value of the research lies to arrive at a certain generalization. If the researcher has no hypothesis to start with, he will have to explain his findings on the basis of some theory which is known as interpretation.
Hence, these are the 8 steps of conducting any kind of research.